Potential adverse effects of nanoparticles

Potential adverse effects of nanoparticles


Potential adverse effects of nanoparticles on the reprodutcive system

  Figure 1 

Adverse effect of NPs in the reproductive cell organs and molecules. Abbreviations: E2, estradiol; FSH, follicle-stimulating hormone; LH, luteinizing hormone; NPs, nanoparticles; PRL, prolactin; T, testosterone.


With the vigorous development of nanometer-sized materials, nanoproducts are becoming widely used in all aspects of life. In medicine, nanoparticles (NPs) can be used as nanoscopic drug carriers and for nanoimaging technologies. Thus, substantial attention has been paid to the potential risks of NPs. Previous studies have shown that numerous types of NPs are able to pass certain biological barriers and exert toxic effects on crucial organs, such as the brain, liver, and kidney. Only recently, attention has been directed toward the reproductive toxicity of nanomaterials. NPs can pass through the blood-testis barrier, placental barrier, and epithelial barrier, which protect reproductive tissues, and then accumulate in reproductive organs. NP accumulation damages organs (testis, epididymis, ovary, and uterus) by destroying Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, and germ cells, causing reproductive organ dysfunction that adversely affects sperm quality, quantity, morphology, and motility or reduces the number of mature oocytes and disrupts primary and secondary follicular development. In addition, NPs can disrupt the levels of secreted hormones, causing changes in sexual behavior. However, the current review primarily examines toxicological phenomena. The molecular mechanisms involved in NP toxicity to the reproductive system are not fully understood, but possible mechanisms include oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammation, and genotoxicity. Previous studies have shown that NPs can increase inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis and induce ROS, causing damage at the molecular and genetic levels which results in cytotoxicity. This review provides an understanding of the applications and toxicological effects of NPs on the reproductive system.

Keywords: ROS; nanoparticles; ovary; reproductive; sperm; toxic.

Conflict of interest statement

Disclosure The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work.

Source https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30587973/




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